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Gardens

Eleanor QuadEleanor
Eleanor of Castile (whose Spanish title was of Castile) was married to Edward of Westminister in October 1254. The couple were said to be inseparable, with Eleanor even following Edward to war in Jerusalem. In 1274, they were crowned King and Queen of England in Westminister Abbey. Just sixteen years later, Eleanor was travelling north to meet up with Edward when  she fell ill with a fever. Her condition worsened quickly and dispite the best efforts of the king, he could not get back in time. Eleanor died on the 24th November 1290. Her body was sent to St. Katherine's Priory, Lincoln, and from there back to London for burial. At each place the procession came to rest en route back to London, the King had the Royal Masons erect a commemorative cross - an 'Eleanor Cross'. The Eleanor Cross in Lincoln stood at St. Katherines Priory at the bottom of what is now Cross O'Cliff Hill.

 St. Hugh's QuadSt Hughs
Saint Hugh of Avalon (also known as Hugh of Burgindy) was born around 1140, son of William, Lord of Avalon. His mother Anna died when he was 8, and he was raised and educated at a convert at Villard-Benoit. After a rapid rise through the church ranks, Hugh moved to England in 1175, where his reputation for holiness soon spread - so much so that he was made Bishop of Lincoln on 21 September 1186. He is famous for rebuilding the Cathedral after an earthquake had destroyed it in 1185, for denouncing the persecution of Jews and tending to lepers. Hugh's primary emblem is the white swan, after his pet swan at Stow which guarded him whilst he slept and displayed considerable grief when he died in 1200. He was made a saint in 1220 by Pope Honorius III and later interred in the Eastern part of the cathedral, the so-called 'Angel Choir'.

King's QuadKings Quad
Edward King was born in 1829 and was educated in Oriel College, Oxford. He was made principal of Cuddesdon Theological College in 1862 and very soon transformed the school. The impression that King made on the people he met is summarized in the words of one of his students: "It was light he carried with him  - light that shone through him - light that flowed through him. The room lit into which he entered." In 1885 he was appointed Bishop of Lincoln and very soon established himself as "the most loved man in Lincolnshire". As Bishop of Lincoln he worked extremely hard; he sought out those whom the Church had failed to reach and whenever possible he did the work of a prison chaplain, speaking with everyone from pickpockets to murderer. He was a remarkable man whose unshakeable faith affected everyone he came into contact with. 

St. Gilbert's QuadGilbert's Quad
Gilbert of Sempringham was born in 1083, the son of Jocelin, a Norman Knight. After studying abroad for many years, he returned in 1130 to become the priest of Sempringham. There he founded a convent for seven nuns at the church., and finding that many other women and men wished to join,  Gilbert formed at mixed community of monks and nuns - the first of it's kind in fact. So the Gilbertines were born, indeed this was the only order founded in medieval England. The order prospered and many other communities were established around the country: by the time of Gilbert's death there were already 13 communities in England and by the 1530s there were 26 Gilbertine houses, including St. Katherine's Priory in Lincoln. Gilbert died at Sempringham in 1189 aged 106 and was made a saint in 1202. He is known as 'Lincolnshire's native Saint'.

The Priory LabyrinthThe Priory Labyrinth
The Labyrinth depicted here is an exact copy of the one in Chartres Cathedral. It is held that the first labyrinth was designed by the architect Daedalus for the Greek King Minos, so at the centre of many labyrinths is protrayed the mythological battle between Mino's son, Theseus, and the Minotaur. The one in Chartres had a bronze plate where the round sections in the centre are. In the medieval period the church decided  these scenes were pagan and so had them removed. The Labyrinth in Chartres Cathedral is unique as it is the oldest surving example we have from the medieval period. Constructed sometime in the twelfth and therteen centuries the labyrinth is one of the largest of it's time, measuring nearly 13 metres in diameter. The idea behind a labyrinth is to create a path that is the longest possible in a confined space; if you follow the path to the centre of this one you will have walked an incredible 260 metres. One story is that those who were unable to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem could walk a labyrinth instead. Having walked to the centre you left your 'old' self behind and emerged a 'new' person.

The Joseph Banks QuadJoseph Banks
Sir Jospeph Banks was born in 1743, and was educated at Harrow, Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. As an enthusiastic botanist and intrepid explorer he undertook voyages to the Labrador and Newfoundland Coasts at just twenty three years of age. His next voyage, between 1768 and 1771,  was to be his most famous, abroad the HMS Endeavour under Captain Cook, which took in islands in the Pacific and charted Australia. He was made President of the Royal Society in 1778 as a result of the amazing discoveries and huge collections of plants he brought back to England. Banks lived in Horncastle for part of his life, where he was influential in directing the drainage projects in the Fens and straightening the River Witham. He is commemorated in Lincoln Cathedral and in the Sir Joseph Banks Conservatory which houses a collection of tropical plants reminiscent of those he brought back from his travels.

The William Byrd QuadWilliam Byrd
William Byrd was the foremost composer of the Elizabethan age and is among only a handful of English composers whose music can truly compare to that of their more famous European contemporaries. Born around 1540, a time of religious upheaval, he managed to carve a career that saw him sing for the catholic Queen Mary in the Chapel Royal and later enjoy the patronage of the protestant Queen Elizabeth, despite him being a devout catholic.  He was made organist and choirmaster at Lincoln Cathedral in 1563 then promoted by Elizabeth to chorister and organist of the Chapel Royal, the Queen's own church. William managed the thorny issue of his faith with great diplomacy, publishing music for the Anglican Church whilst composing music for the Catholic faith in private, all of which is held in the highest regard today and led a contemporary to describe him as the "Father of British Music".

Templar QuadTemplar Quad
The Templar Knights, real title 'Order of the Poor Knights of Christ', were a military religious order founded in Jerusalem in 1119, after the first crusade. Their purpose was to protect pilgrims travelling from Europe to the Holy Land. They played an important part in the Crusades of the 12th and 13th  centuries, and helped transmit money and supplies from Europe to the Holy Land. The Knights owned a great deal of land in Lincolnshire, the best known being the Temple in Temple Bruer, but their Preceptiories were once common sights all over the county. The order was dissolved in the early 1300s, but it has continued in Lincolnshire as a society of titled ex army men who helped to look after church property all over the world. Templar Quad is on part of the lands Lincolnshire owned by the Order before its dissolution.

St. Katherine QuadSt Katherine
Saint Katherine was born late in the third century AD in Alexandria, Egypt. She was a great supporter of the Christian faith and is said to have been beautiful, statuesque and unequalled in kindness. She was given a fine education and spoke many languages by the age of eighteen.  The ruler of the time, Maxentius, tried to demand that Katherine give up her faith; when she refused Maxentius had her imprisoned. While in prison she managed to convert the empress and many of the soldiers to Christianity, resulting in Katherine being sentenced to die in a tortue known as 'the wheels'. When the tortue began the wheels broke and killed several pagans. Katherine survived and the torturer's wheels became her primary symbol. Katherine died in 311 AD and became a patron saint of philosophers, maidens and preachers. The Priory in Lincoln was named after her.

Thorold QuadThorold Quad
Sheriff Thorold was an influential figure in the history of Lincoln directly after the Norman conquest of 1066. The king made the Saxon Lord his representative in the  county of Lincoln, a further sign of the faith the king showed in him after making Thorold one of the few Saxons to keep their land after the invasion. Thorold's influence was obviously strong as a member of his family, the Countess Lucy, is credited with fortifying a tower on the south side of the castle, an act commemorated by the Lucy tower. Sheriff Thorold is also linked in the Doomsday book to the infamous Lady Godiva, who rode naked through the streets of Coventry by way of pretest against increased taxation from the king.

Scott QuadScott Quad
Charlotte Angas Scott is one of the first women to obtain a doctorate in Mathematics. Born in 1858, she had to overcome the prejudice of the time in order to gain a formal education,  which culminated in Charlotte being awarded a scholarship at Girton College, Cambridge. Despite finishing with one of the highest scores, Charlotte was not allowed to receive her degree because at the time only men could graduate from Cambridge University. Undeterred she continued to study, gaining two further degrees from the University of London by 1885. Charlotte was then offered the chance to lecture in the United States, where she gained fame for the books and papers she produced, some of which are still in use by Universities today. She provided the inspiration for many other women to pursue a university education.

    The Priory Federation of Academies, Lincoln